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CIES | 21-September-2019


1.     Use a comma to separate items in a list (but beware of the serial comma). English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Look at the following example.

For instance see that comma before “and,” the conjunction? They are known as serial commas. . US and Canadian English favor the use of a serial comma most often, U.K and Australian English don’t take it as a priority. Overall, we will be following common U.S. rules for this article, so becomes important to consult your preferred or required style guide.

The English language takes into use a comma to separate three or more items in a series.

2.     Join independent clauses using a comma . When two independent clauses are combined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet), a comma comes before the coordinating conjunction. An independent clause is defined as a group of words that can stand alone as a sentence.

Let’s look it out with an example

I really like playing cricket.

I really like racing.

After using coordinating conjunction, it would be like..

I really like playing cricket, and I really like racing.

3.     Joining a dependent clause and an independent clause using a comma As the name implies, a dependent clause depends on another clause to form a complete sentence.

If a dependent clause is being followed by an independent clause, no comma is required.

For example: Try to calm down when you are angry.

On the other side when a dependent clause precedes the independent clause, a comma is a must.

For example: When an opportunity came to your way, you should have applied.

4.     Some sentences start with a word or group of words for providing more information. This word or group of words is being followed by a comma in order to convey the reader that the main part of the sentence is about to begin. Be smart, dear! It’s the time to test your patience.

5. Use a comma to interrupt a sentence or to provide additional information.
There is requirement for commas for any phrase that interrupts a sentence and is not grammatically tied to the sentence.  For instance, the case of a nonrestrictive clause, which provides information that is not essential to the sentence's meaning, commas should be included. It’s when you can throw commas left and right and it's very ok.

For example : That women I explained you about, who was roaming here and there, was searching for her baby.

 6. Use a comma with direct quotations. Commas are used whenever we are using a direct quotation.

“I would be late today for school,” said Ram to his colleague.

It entirely depends upon the flavor of English you've chosen that whether the comma goes inside or outside of the quotation marks. For instance in the U.S. and Canada, the comma tends to come before the closing quotation mark.

 7. Use a comma with coordinate adjectives. Whenever two adjectives independently modify a noun, a comma must be placed between those two adjectives.

8. Use commas with dates and addresses. In the date month and day are separated from the year by using a comma. May 1, 2019. On the other side, whenever the date is written in the inverted style or if only the month and year are given, no comma is needed. 21 May 2018. In the U.S., the street address, city, and state are separated by commas.

9. Use a comma with titles. When a title is being followed by a name, a pair of commas separates it from the rest of the sentence.

Mr. Ramesh Bajaj, CEO, Emi LLP  is a very thoughtful person.

 10. Use a comma with numbers. Starting from the right side, commas separate the numbers into groups of three whenever numbers longer than four digits are being used.

30,000 (correctly placed comma)

89,000,00 (incorrectly placed commas)

11. Use a comma when a conjunctive adverb begins, interrupts, or concludes a sentence.A comma-not a semicolon must come before and/or after the adverb (depending on whether it is at the beginning, middle, or end) , whenever a conjunctive adverb begins, interrupts, or concludes a sentence.

The company is evaluating total sales conversions at the end of the month. Further, the will decide the coming month sales strategy based on the conversion outcomes of the current month.

She always wanted to join Indian Air Force; because of her injury, though, she was not able to make it out.

She knew that Ramesh will not come. She had waited for 3 hours, however.

The conjunctive adverbs are further, though, and however, respectively.

12. Use a comma with appositive adjectives. Here's another free pass. An appositive adjective is an adjective that emphasizes the description of a noun or pronoun, and it is placed after the noun/pronoun. You guessed it: it's set off by commas.

An appositive adjective is an adjective that emphasizes the description of a noun or pronoun, and it is placed after the noun/pronoun, we are required to use a comma with appositive adjectives.

The player, correctly played the delivery, and finally got to his century.

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